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Главная Свиней Интенсивное свиноводство

Интенсивное свиноводство

 Интенсивное свиноводствоРентабельность любой свиноводческой фермы в значительной степени зависит от породных особенностей, уровня и полноценности кормления и правильной организации самого производства.
Для обеспечения высокой эффективности производства свинины необходимо получать от свиноматки 2 опороса за год и больше с производительностью за один опорос 9-11 поросят; обеспечить среднесуточный прирост свиней на откорме 480-520 г с расходами корма на 1 кг прироста не выше 5,0-5,5 корм. ед.

Динамика живой массы молодняка в 60 -, 120 -, 270-дневном возрасте должна отвечать в среднем 16, 37 и 110 кг соответственно. Производство свинины в хозяйстве должно достигать не менее 100 кг на переходную голову и 1,8-2,0 т на основную свиноматку за год.
Для обеспечения полноценного кормления на основную свиноматку с приплодом за год необходимо заготовить 14 т кормовых единиц, из которых 3 т ячменя, 3 - кукурузы, 2 - пшеницы, 2 - зернобобовых и 9 т сочных и зеленых кормов.
Важным технологическим звеном интенсификации свиноводства является воссоздание. Правильное содержание и полноценное кормление боровов-плодников дают возможность максимально использовать их генетический потенциал. В зависимости от возраста и живой массы боровам-плодникам необходимо обеспечить полного мерой их потребности в общих энергетических питательных веществах и перевариваемом протеине.
Для свиноматок в зависимости от возраста и периода воспроизводимого цикла необходимо выдерживать определенные условия кормления и содержания.
В структуре рациона для ремонтных свинок, свиноматок первой половины поросности и тех, которых готовят к парованию после отлучения поросят, должно быть 75% концентрированных кормов, 20-23% - сочных и зеленых кормов и 2-5% травяной муки. Свиноматка второй половины поросности и в подсосный период часть концкормов увеличивают до 80-85%. Сочные корма в рационе составляют 12-17%, а травяная мука - около 3%. За 7 дней до опороса и в течение 7 дней после него из рациона надо исключить силос, объёмные и сочные корма.
После опороса в рацион включают пойло из отрубей овсянки, дают много воды. За сутки до отлучения на 1/3 уменьшают дачу кормов, а количество воды уменьшают наполовину. При этом полностью изымают корма, которые способствуют образованию молока, - сочные, зеленые, молочные корма.
Успешное выращивание поросят зависит от их развития в эмбрионный период, индивидуальных особенностей, молочности свиноматок, условий кормления и содержания.
Выращивание поросят в неспециализированных хозяйствах не отличается в значительной степени от их выращивания в специализированных хозяйствах.
Но надо помнить, что в неспециализированных хозяйствах возможны большие вариации условий содержания и особенностей кормления. Динамику этих особенностей определяют условия и традиции, которые сложились в хозяйстве, наличие определенных кормов, технические характеристики зданий для содержания молодняка.
Вместе с тем следует отметить, что впервые дни жизни необходимые питательные вещества поросята получают с материнским молоком. Но начиная с 2-3-й недели, потребности в них значительно повышаются, а количество молока у свиноматок уменьшается. Поэтому для полного обеспечения поросят питательными веществами их необходимо по возможности подкармливать разными кормами.


 

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